A blast-induced seismic wave is an instantaneous, complicated wave different from natural seismic wave. It has characteristics such as high frequency, fast vibration intensity attenuation rate with distance increasing, short duration, generally small hypocenter energy and short blast-induced seismic wavelength, etc. In this paper, in combination with the properties of rock and soil, through using stress-strain relation and transmission characteristics of wave in different media, the author explored the mechanism of action that blast-induced seismic vibration has upon rock and soil. Meanwhile, the time-space process of action that blast-induced seismic vibration has on structure under different circumstances is deeply explored. Moreover, the impacts that blast-induced seismic vibration characteristic and structure’s dynamic behavior have on structure response under the effect of blast-induced earthquakes are discussed. Thereby the mechanism of action that blast-induced seismic vibration generates on structure is revealed.