12Cr2Mo1R is a high strength pressure vessel steel used in the petrochemical industry. The mechanical and physical properties of the steel 12Cr2Mo1R which was developed in Wuhan Iron and Steel (Group) Company, were investigated in the present work. Test results showed that the steel 12Cr2Mo1R exhibits a high strength at room temperature and high temperature, high strength along Z-direction, and also has very good impact toughness at lower temperatures. The density, linear expansion coefficient and elasticity modulus were also measured. The measured values are all higher than the corresponding specifications of national standards. The uniform mechanical properties and physical properties is attributed to homogeneous microstructure through steel plates.