Vitrification is considered as an attractive procedure for municipal solid waste incineration ash, which can realize the volume reduction and innocent treatment of incineration ash, as well as reuse of bottom ash. The main oxide components of molten ash slag are CaO, Al2O3, SiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, and Na2O, accounting for more than 90% of the total mass. The phase relations and thermodynamic properties of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeOx-MgO-Na2O oxide system is highly required, and is of great significance for optimization of vitrification processing and sustainable resource utilization of melting slag. A study on the equilibria phase relations of CaO-SiO2-MgO-FeOx system was done by applying CALPHAD based on FactSage in this paper. The modeling parameters for the thermodynamic properties of liquid phase in CaO-SiO2-MgO-FeOx system were established and the equilibrium phase relations of MgO-SiO2-FeOx and CaO-SiO2-FeOx-MgO systems were calculated for different temperatures and oxygen partial pressures.