Blast-induced seismic wave, which is an instantaneous, complicated wave, is different from natural seismic wave. It has characteristics such as high frequency, fast vibration intensity attenuation rate with distance increasing, short duration, generally small hypocenter energy and short wavelength of blast-induced seismic wave, etc. In this paper, on the basis of motion equation of the structural system and through rigorous mathematical induction under blast-induced seismic action, the energy transfer (input) and transformation equations of single freedom structural system and multiple freedom structural system are obtained and carefully studied. Through using stress-strain connection and the transmission characteristics of wave in different medium, the author explored the mechanism and time-space process of the action blast-induced seismic vibration has on structure. Meanwhile, the author also analyzed the impacts blast-induced seismic vibration characteristics and structure dynamic characteristics have on structural reaction. Furthermore, the mechanism of action blast-induced seismic vibration has on structure is revealed.