The Influence of Spalling on the Fire Resistance of RC Structures
A great many of experiments has shown that reinforced concrete (RC) structures suffered from spalling in fire. However, at present there are still no convincing spalling predicting models available due to the inhomogeneous nature and complicated thermo-hydro-mechanical interactions in concrete at elevated temperatures. In order to evaluate the fire resistance of RC structures which are subjected to concrete spalling, a thermal analysis procedure is developed which considers the effects of spalling on the growth of temperature in RC members. The predicted temperatures are then used to model the structural behaviour. The spalled portion of concrete is modelled as "void", which has no thermal and mechanical properties. A series of parametric studies carried out on RC structural members with different boundary conditions shows that the influence of spalling on fire resistance is very significant apart from the RC slabs subject to higher laterally restraint.
X. M. Yu et al., "The Influence of Spalling on the Fire Resistance of RC Structures", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 255-260, pp. 519-523, 2011