Multiple Anchor Behavior of Steel-to-Concrete Connections under Reversed Cyclic Loading
Four steel-to-concrete connections with adhesive anchor groups under reversed cyclic loading have been tested. The results showed that anchor steel could reach yield strength before connection failure, generating small shell-shaped concrete cone in the surface of block and the ultimate capacity was governed by strength of anchor. Seismic characteristics of hysteresis curve, rigidity regression, ductility and energy-dissipation were used to draw conclusions that the connections would behave in a ductile manner without significant loss of loading capacity after peak value and visible deformation could develop until failure occurred. Increased embedment depth and added amount of anchors were helpful to improve seismic performance of connections. Only the outer row of most stressed anchors in the tension zone were needed to meet the elliptical interaction of tension and shear capacity requirement during the design process of anchor groups under combined shear and moment loading. In seismic design of steel-to-concrete connections, the predicted capacity by a reduction factor of 0.8 was advised and the comparison of calculated versus observed capacity presented limited variance.
Q. Xie et al., "Multiple Anchor Behavior of Steel-to-Concrete Connections under Reversed Cyclic Loading", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 255-260, pp. 669-673, 2011