An optimized synthesis route was applied for controlling the preparation of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in an aqueous solution. Some key factors which influencing the properties of CdSe QDs, such as initial pH, ratio of precursor etc, were investigated. The as-prepared products have been characterized by TEM, XPS, XRD, UV-Vis and fluorescence (FL) spectra. The result showed that the high-quality CdSe QDs with 3 nm was obtained. The experiments also conformed that the CdSe QDs with better FL properties were obtained with properly initial pH, 5, suitably [Cd2+] / [SeSO3 2-], range from 1:0.25 to 1:0.75 and the ratio of [Cd2+] / [TGA] is 1:2~1:3.