This paper discussed the main clinker minerals and their optimal proportion of Ba-bearing aluminoferrite cement. The results show that the optimal sintering temperature is 1365°C. In XRD patterns, the diffraction peak of C2.75B1.25A3 and C4AF nearly disappear when the harden cement slurry hydrated for 3d at absent of gypsum. At the same time, a large numbers of hydration products like BaSO4 and CxAHy which including CAH10, C2AH8, C4AH19 and so on, appear in XRD patterns. So the hydration rate of Ba-bearing aluminoferrite cement is fast and the degree of hydration is high. These hydration products come into being a stable structural frame so that 3d compressive strength of the clinker can reach to 73.3MPa.