Ecological Barium-Crystal Glass Based on Thailand Quartz Sands Doped with Zirconium Dioxide
Ecological crystal glass with no toxic compounds, especially lead, was based on soda-lime-silica glass that fabricated mainly from 50 wt% local dressing sand, 22 wt% barium carbonate and doped with various concentrations of zirconium dioxide. Density (ρ), refractive index (RI), thermal expansion coefficient (CoE) and hardness (HV) were measured. It was found that the values of ρ, RI and HV increased linearly as the increasing of zirconium dioxide contents, whereas the CoE was decreased. This type of glass was ecologically friendly material.
Shiquan Liu and Min Zuo
K. Won-In et al., "Ecological Barium-Crystal Glass Based on Thailand Quartz Sands Doped with Zirconium Dioxide", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 306-307, pp. 1484-1487, 2011