Nano-sized titanium dioxide in aquatic environment poses potential impact on environment and human health. In this research, the impact of pH value, humic acid (HA) and divalent cations (Ca2+) on the stability of titanium dioxide nanoparticles(NPs) in the aqueous enviorment was investigated using a batch test. The results showed that the particle size of TiO2 NPs was not sensitive to the pH value but presented inversely proportional to zeta potential. The TiO2 NPs become more stable along with surface zeta potential, accompany with small particle size and high dispersion. In the presence of HA, the particle size was smaller and TiO2 NPs could be stabilized. This might be synergistic effect of the ligand exchange and electrostatic force. Meanwhile, NPs particle size increased with the addition of Ca2+ and the stability of TiO2 NPs became decreased.