Pressure and Microstructural Change with Web to Flange Ratio and Die Land Length in Cold Extrusion of I-Shaped Lead Alloy
Plastic deformation process resulting in ultra fine grained materials which are rapidly grasping applications due to their superior mechanical properties remain an area of continued research interest. Generally, the influence of die land length and web to flange ratio in grain refinement subsequent to plastic deformation process have not being adequately exploited especially in complex die opening geometries. In the present study, the effect of these parameters on extrusion pressure and morphological change in I-shaped die opening geometry is investigated and reported. A forward extrusion rig is designed and manufactured for the purpose of experimental investigation. The upper bound analysis shows that increasing die land length leads to increasing relative extrusion pressure. Optimum web to flange ratio of 0.45 is numerically simulated and recommended to extrude I-shaped lead alloy with minimum load requirement. The experimental results reveal that increasing area ratio leads to quasi-sinusoidal pattern in surface hardness of I-shaped section irrespective of strain rate value. Increasing web to flange ratio, therefore, leads to increasing anisotropy of the I-shaped lead alloy. The extruded sections were examined with optical metallurgical microscope, and it is observed that increasing strain rate results in profound refinement of grain and inclusions in lead alloy even at room temperature.
M. S. J. Hashmi, B. S. Yilbas and S. Naher
J.S. Ajiboye et al., "Pressure and Microstructural Change with Web to Flange Ratio and Die Land Length in Cold Extrusion of I-Shaped Lead Alloy", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 83-86, pp. 7-15, 2010