The movements of liquids in the jet area, the transient area and the atomization area were analyzed in a high voltage electrostatic field and the parenchyma of charged liquid drops atomization in these areas were discussed. Experimental equipment, by which the high voltage electrostatic field can be built, has been designed, and the atomization processes of kerosene, emulsifier and alcohol in a high voltage electrostatic field have been studied. The results show that a threshold voltage is needed in order to break up the liquid drops. The lower surface tension and the lower viscous force of liquid, and the higher electrical conductivity ratio, correspond with better electrostatic atomization effects. For kerosene, emulsifier and alcohol, the best atomization effects have been achieved at 40kV, 10kV and 25kV respectively.