Study of Distribution of Impurity Atoms in Metallurgical Macrodefects
Using nuclear microanalysis (NRA) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), concentrations of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, aluminum, and vanadium were measured on a large group of macrodefects formed in the course of smelting titanium alloys. A remarkable enrichment of the defect material in oxygen and nitrogen atoms was detected; histograms of defect distribution over the concentrations of oxygen, nitrogen, aluminum, and vanadium were obtained. The above results agree with the concepts according to which the defects are formed from the particles that have the melting temperature higher then the temperature of smelting.
Andreas Öchsner and Graeme E. Murch
V.B. Vykhodets et al., "Study of Distribution of Impurity Atoms in Metallurgical Macrodefects", Defect and Diffusion Forum, Vols. 273-276, pp. 707-712, 2008