Titanium Surface Modification Techniques for Implant Fabrication – From Microscale to the Nanoscale
This manuscript reviews about titanium surface modification techniques for its application in orthopaedic and dental implants. There are a few limitations in the long term prognosis of orthopaedic and dental implants. Poor osseointegration with bone, periimplant infection leading to implant failure and short term longevity demanding revision surgery, are to mention a few. Micro- and nanoscale modification of titanium surface using physicochemical, morphological and biochemical approaches have resulted in higher bone to implant contact ratio and improved osseointegration. With recent advances in micro, nano-fabrication techniques and multidisciplinary research studies focusing on bridging biomaterials for medical applications, TiO2 nanotubes have been extensively studied for implant applications. The need for titanium implant surface that can closely mimic the nanoscale architecture of human bone has become a priority. For such purpose, TiO2 nanotubes of different dimensions and architectural fashions at the nanoscale level are being evaluated. This manuscript discusses in brief about the in-vitro and in-vivo studies on titanium surface modification techniques. This manuscript also addresses the recent studies done on such nanotubular surfaces for the effective delivery of osteoinductive growth factors and anti bacterial/ anti inflammatory drugs to promote osseointegration and prevent peri-implant infection.
K. Subramani "Titanium Surface Modification Techniques for Implant Fabrication – From Microscale to the Nanoscale", Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Vol. 5, pp. 39-56, 2010