Spin and Valence States of Manganese Ions in Mn-Doped BaTiO3 Ceramics by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
A number of paramagnetic defects and defect complexes in BaTiO3 have been detected by the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) technique. The signal intensity, the g factors and the hyperfine splitting constants A of Mn2+ at the different temperatures were distributed with temperatures in a U-shape. In this paper, a new direct evidence for the presence of manganese with an electron spin of S=5/2 (Mn2+) in all four phases (R, O, T and C) and the high spin state of the electron configuration in MnTi² at the high temperature cubic phase is presented by EPR method in La-Mn codoped BaTiO3 PTCR ceramics.
Wei Pan, Jianghong Gong, Chang-Chun Ge and Jing-Feng Li
Z. G. Zhou et al., "Spin and Valence States of Manganese Ions in Mn-Doped BaTiO3 Ceramics by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 280-283, pp. 373-376, 2005