The sliding wear behavior of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was examined on four different compositions of novel low temperature degradation-free zirconia/alumina (Z/A) composite material used for a femoral head in total hip joint replacement. The wear of UHMWPE pins against these Z/A composite disks were evaluated by performing the linear reciprocal sliding and repeat pass rotational sliding tests for one million cycles in a bovine serum. The novel low temperature degradation (LTD)-free tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP)/alumina composite (90(5.3Y, 4.6Nb)-TZP/10Al2O3) induced the less wear amount of UHMWPE than the other Z/A composites. Linear reciprocal motion wore more the UHMWPE pin than did repeat pass rotational motion for all disk materials. It was observed that few transfer film on the sliding track of Z/A composite disks and the matching contact surfaces of pins had relatively less scratch. Getting rid of transfer film, there is no change of surface roughness on the sliding track of Z/A composite disks. This novel Z/A composite (90(5.3Y, 4.6Nb)-TZP/10 Al2O3) demonstrates the potential as an alternative material for the femoral head in total hip replacement.