Effect of heat-treatment temperature on the osteoconductivity of the apatite derived from bovine trabecular bone was investigated. Three different heat-treatment temperatures (600, 800 and 1000 oC) were adopted in the experiment and their effects on the physical properties of apatite granules, which could affect on the osteoconductivity, were evaluated. The content of carbonate ions in the apatite structure was assessed by FT-IR and its crystallinity was evaluated by X-ray diffractometry. The microstructure was assessed by field emission electron microscopy. Apatite granules heat-treated at 600 oC and 1000 oC were implanted into the calvaria of New Zealand White rabbit for 4 weeks, respectively, and the undecalcified ground histologic specimens stained with multiple staining method was observed. As increasing the heat-treatment temperature, the crystal size and crystallinity of the apatite increased while the content of carbonate ions decreased. The apatite granules heat-treated at 600 oC showed much better osteoconductivity comparing to that heat-treated at 1000 oC. The results were explained in terms of the physical properties of apatite which could affect to the osteoconductivity.