This study describes a method of good dispersion and alignment of VGCFs, and examines the effect of nanofiber content on the mechanical properties of nanocomposites. The dispersion of nanofibers was carried out by solution blending, mechanical mixing, and sonication. Levels of 4% – 31% volume content of VGCFs were mixed with polypropylene (PP) powder, and then were melt-mixed using a twin-screw extruder. For the further alignment of fibers, extruded rods were stacked in the mold cavity for the compression molding. In the case of 31% volume content, tensile modulus and strength improved by 100% and 40%, and the flexural modulus and strength increased by 120% and 25%, respectively. The shear modulus showed 65% increase, but the strength dropped sharply by 40%. In the transverse direction, the tensile, flexural, and shear strength decreased as more fibers were added. The matrix modification by maleic anhydride (MAPP) increased the tensile and flexural properties of VGCF/PP by 20% - 30% in the longitudinal direction, and 40% - 250% increase in the transverse direction. The fiber surface treatment by plasma improved tensile and flexural properties of untreated VGCF/PP (18 % vol) composites by 10% - 30% in the longitudinal direction, but strength in the transverse direction decreased by 30% - 40%.