Simulation of Hot Sheet Metal Forming Processes Based on a Micro-Structural Constitutive Model
A constitutive model is proposed for simulations of hot forming processes. Dominant mechanisms in hot forming including inter-granular deformation, grain boundary sliding and grain boundary diffusion are considered in the constitutive model. A Taylor type polycrystalline model is used to predict inter-granular deformation. Previous works on grain boundary sliding and grain boundary diffusion are extended to drive three dimensional macro stress-strain rate relationships for each mechanism. In these relationships, the effect of grain size is also taken into account. It is shown that for grain boundary diffusion, stress-strain rate relationship obeys the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule. The proposed model is used to simulate step strain rate tests and the results are compared with experimental data. It is concluded that the model can be used to predict flow stress for various grain sizes and strain rates. The proposed model can be directly used in simulation of hot forming processes and as an example the bulge forming process is simulated and the results are compared with experimental data.
J.R. Duflou, R. Clarke, M. Merklein, F. Micari, B. Shirvani and K. Kellens
M. Farzin et al., "Simulation of Hot Sheet Metal Forming Processes Based on a Micro-Structural Constitutive Model", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 473, pp. 556-563, 2011