Authors: S. Kanagaraj, A. Fonseca, R.M. Guedes, Monica S.A. Oliveira, José A.O. Simões
Abstract: Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a unique polymer with outstanding physical and mechanical properties that makes it particularly attractive to fabricate the bearing surface for artificial joints. Despite the requirement of visco-elastic properties of the UHWMPE and its composites, the characterization of them has received relatively little attention. The objective of this work is concerned with the studies on visco-elastic behaviour of UHMWPE and nanocomposites, which were prepared at optimized ball milling time with different cooling techniques. It is observed that stiffness of the materials increases appreciably at 0.2wt.% CNTs with an increase of frequency till 30Hz which confirms the reinforcing effect of CNTs in composites. The loss modulus of the sample is observed to be converged at higher temperature irrespective of frequency. The damping effect of the sample could be kept within the limit of polymer at any frequency range when the temperature is low and it is also possible at any temperatures at higher frequencies except LN2 cooled sample. The relaxation fraction increases with an increase of temperature and decreases with an increase of frequency. It is concluded that air cooled sample could be used wherever modulus is the main criteria irrespective of temperature and frequency, LN2 cooled sample can be used where more damping is required and water cooled samples may be used where more strength and toughness are required.
Abstract: Blends of Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and nano-SiO2 powder were prepared via solution mixing. Effect of nano-SiO2 particles on the crystallinity of PLLA in composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction, the result indicated that the incorporation of nano-SiO2 did not influence the crystallinity of PLLA in composite. The bending strength and modulus of the PLLA/nano-SiO2 composites with varying nano-SiO2 content were tested, showing that the bending strength reduced with the increase of nano-SiO2 content and the bending modulus increased. The SEM graphs of PLLA/nano-SiO2 composites were illustrated that the cross-section of composites varied from brittle to ductile fracture with the content of nano-SiO2 increasing up to 10 %, and changed from ductile to brittle fracture with further increasing of nano-SiO2 content.
Authors: Fabia Galantini, Sabrina Bianchi, Valter Castelvetro, Irene Anguillesi, Giuseppe Gallone
Abstract: Among the broad class of electro-active polymers, dielectric elastomer actuators represent a rapidly growing technology for electromechanical transduction. In order to further develop this applied science, the high driving voltages currently needed must be reduced. For this purpose, one of the most promising and adopted approach is to increase the dielectric constant while maintaining both low dielectric losses and high mechanical compliance. In this work, a dielectric elastomer was prepared by dispersing functionalised carbon nanotubes into a polyurethane matrix and the effects of filler dispersion into the matrix were studied in terms of dielectric, mechanical and electro-mechanical performance. An interesting increment of the dielectric constant was observed throughout the collected spectrum while the loss factor remained almost unchanged with respect to the simple matrix, indicating that conductive percolation paths did not arise in such a system. Consequences of the chemical functionalisation of carbon nanotubes with respect to the use of unmodified filler were also studied and discussed along with rising benefits and drawbacks for the whole composite material.
Authors: Li Li Yang, Yong Quan Zhang, Yong Ge, Qing Hua Zhu, Ce Zhang
Abstract: Structural health monitoring of concrete infrastructures has attracted enormous attention due to the brittle nature of concrete. In this research, we report the carbon fibre/silicon rubber composite sensors and their excellent monitoring in concrete’s compression. It is shown that the electric resistance change synchronously with the mechanical deformation of concrete during the compression process. With the increase of carbon fibre fraction, the sensitivity decreases and the numerical equations to predict the structural change are also obtained. The experimental results reported here highlight the potential application of CF/silicon composites as an effective, real-time structural monitoring sensor with low-cost and long life.
Authors: Zhen Chen, Ye Mao Han, Min Zhou, Rong Jin Huang, Yuan Zhou, Lai Feng Li
Abstract: In the present study, the glass microsphere dispersed Bi-Sb thermoelectric materials have been fabricated through mechanical alloying followed by pressureless sintering. The phase composition and the microstructure were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity were measured in the temperature range of 77~300 K. The ZT values were calculated according to the measurement results. The results showed that the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity decreased by adding glass microsphere into Bi-Sb thermoelectric materials. However, the optimum ZT value of 0.24 was obtained at 260 K, which was increased 10% than that of the Bi-Sb matrix. So it is confirmed that the thermoelectric performance of Bi-Sb-based materials can be improved by adding moderate glass microspheres.