Authors: Tatiana Liapina, Andreas Leineweber, Eric J. Mittemeijer
Abstract: ε/γ'-iron nitride (ε-Fe3N1+x, γ'-Fe4N) compound layers with thicknesses of about 10 µm were grown on pure α-Fe by gas nitriding at 823 K followed by quenching and were annealed at different temperatures in the range of 613 K – 693 K for different periods of time. These heat treatments led to a redistribution of nitrogen within the compound layer as well as between the compound layer and the adjacent ferrite, inducing thickness changes of the ε- and γ'-layers. The changes were analysed by light microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. Models to describe and interpret the phase transformations in the ε/γ'-iron nitride compound layers as a function of time and temperature are discussed.
Authors: Sebastien Jegou, Regis Kubler, Laurent Barrallier
Abstract: This work deals with the development of residual stresses during nitriding of steels. The
main features of a chemico-thermo-echanical model of nitriding are presented. A micro-macroapproach is applied based on volume change computation in agreements with thermochemical modifications. Results are correlated with the characterization of a ternary Fe-C-3w.%Cr alloy nitrided at 550°C for various time. Residual stress-depth analyses are carried out by X-rays diffraction. Residual stress generation is deeply dependant on chemical and thermodynamical
evolutions during the treatment, taking advantage on microstructural effects.
Authors: Yong Chang Liu, F. Sommer, Eric J. Mittemeijer
Abstract: The formation of ferrite (α) from austenite (γ) and vice versa, upon thermo-mechanical processing of steels, are phase transformations of great technological importance. Often these transformations occur in the presence of externally or internally imposed stress. This paper provides an overview of recent research on the quantitative analysis of the transformation kinetics of the γ®a and a®g transformations subjected to uniaxial compressive stress below the yield stress of g and a, based on the application of the high-resolution differential dilatometry and the modular model of transformation kinetics. The application of uniaxially compressive stresses leads to antagonistic effects on the transformation kinetics: the stress applied upon the γ®a transformation prompts the transformation, while it obstructs the a®g transformation. These results can be quantitatively discussed in terms of chemical driving forces and transformation-induced deformation energies.
Authors: Yong Chang Liu, Li Fang Zhang, Xu Yang, Dong Jiang Wang
Abstract: Analytical model for isochronal phase transformation kinetics attracts much attention for its advantages and importance. Adopting an effective treatment for the so-called temperature integral, an analytical model for isochronal transformation kinetics has been developed by considering various nucleation and growth modes. After applying to the analysis of the austenite-ferrite phase transformation recorded by the high-resolution dilatometric measurements, it is recognized that the developed analytical phase transformation model could be adopted effectively to determine the nucleation and/or growth mechanism prevailing during the isochronal phase transformation processes.
Authors: K. Muszka, Lin Sun, Bradley P. Wynne, Eric J. Palmiere, W.M. Rainforth
Abstract: Recent observations show that the strain reversal affects significantly and in a complex way both the static recrystallisation (SRX) and strain-induced precipitation (PPT) kinetics in Nb-microalloyed steel. It is already known that the recrystallisation stagnation is a consequence of the competition between the driving pressure for recrystallisation and the pinning pressure caused by the strain-induced precipitation of Nb (C,N) precipitates. Both of these parameters depend in turn on the local dislocation density. Thus, it is expected that a variation of the local dislocation density due to reversal of the strain will affect at the same time the local driving and the pinning pressures, which will cause the difference in the hardening levels. In the present paper, the influence of strain path change on microstructure evolution and mechanical behaviour in Nb-microalloyed steel (API X-70 grade) was studied. The deformation schedules were designed in order to investigate an effect of strain reversal on both static recrystallisation and strain-induced precipitation process kinetics. Flow curves recorded during deformation of X-70 steel showed clear influence of applied strain path on both static recrystallisation kinetics and strain-induced precipitation process.