Penetration Dynamics of Solid Particles into Liquids High-Speed Experimental Results and Modelling
Penetration of model solid particles (polymer, teflon, nylon, alumina) into transparent model liquids (distilled water and aqueous solutions of KI) were recorded by a high speed (500 frames per second) camera, while the particles were dropped from different heights vertically on the still surface of the liquids. In all cases a cavity has been found to form behind the solid particle, penetrating into the liquid. For each particle/liquid combination the critical dropping height has been measured, above which the particle was able to penetrate into the bulk liquid. Based on this, the critical impact particle velocity, and also the critical Weber number of penetration have been established. The critical Weber number of penetration was modelled as a function of the contact angle, particle size and the ratio of the density of solid particles to the density of the liquid.
O. Verezub et al., "Penetration Dynamics of Solid Particles into Liquids High-Speed Experimental Results and Modelling ", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 473-474, pp. 429-434, 2005