Six years have passed since the international workshop “Investigations and Applications of Severe Plastic Deformation” held 2-8 August 1999 in Moscow, Russia. This workshop focused on severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing to produce bulk nanostructured metals and alloys. Since 1999 the field has expanded from 200 to over 2000 publications that have addressed the microstructures and properties that can be produced by a growing number of SPD techniques. In view of this expansion, the outlook for ongoing development of severely deformed materials is updated. Special attention is given to factors influencing the manufacturing and commercialization of SPD-processed metals, including barriers to their widespread application. Recommendations are made for future SPD research that will facilitate more rapid commercialization of SPD-processed metals and enhance the competitiveness of SPD processing with respect to alternative technologies for producing bulk nanostructured metals.