3D Coupled Thermomechanical Finite Element Analysis of Ultrasonic Consolidation
A 3-D coupled temperature-displacement finite element analysis is performed to study an ultrasonic consolidation process. Results show that ultrasonic wave is effective in causing deformation in aluminum foils. Ultrasonic vibration leads to an oscillating stress field. The oscillation of stress in substrate lags behind the ultrasonic vibration by about 0.1 cycle of ultrasonic wave. The upper foil, which is in contact with the substrate, has the most severe deformation. The substrate undergoes little deformation. Apparent material softening by ultrasonic wave, which is of great concern for decades, is successfully simulated. The higher the friction coefficient, the more obvious the apparent material softening effect.
T. Chandra, K. Tsuzaki, M. Militzer , C. Ravindran
C.J. Huang and E. Ghassemieh, "3D Coupled Thermomechanical Finite Element Analysis of Ultrasonic Consolidation", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 539-543, pp. 2651-2656, 2007