Ultrafine and Nanostructured Refractory Metals Processed by SPD: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties
Severe plastic deformation (SPD) has been demonstrated to be the most efficient method to produce bulk metals with ultrafine grained (UFG, 100 nm < grain size d < 500 nm) and nanocrystalline (NC, d<100 nm) microstructures. Such metals exhibit some unique properties owing to their unusual microstructures such as high-energy, non-equilibrium grain boundaries. Efforts in the past two decades have focused on metals with face-centered cubic (fcc) structures. Recent experimental results have shown that UFG/NC metals with body-centered cubic (bcc) structures have some properties that are distinct from their fcc counterparts. Further, the majority of the fcc metals are very ductile and have relatively low melting points, making them easier to process using SPD. On the contrary, many bcc metals are refractory, and are very sensitive to interstitial impurities, rendering them difficult to work via SPD. In this article, we attempt to summarize the state-of-the-art of UFG/NC refractory metals processed by SPD, with focus on the microstructure and mechanical properties. Comparisons with UFG/NC fcc metals are made where appropriate. Outstanding issues and future directions are also addressed.
Xiaozhou Liao and Yonghao Zhao
Q. Wei et al., "Ultrafine and Nanostructured Refractory Metals Processed by SPD: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 579, pp. 75-90, 2008