High resolution X-ray line profile analysis is sensitive to crystallite size, dislocation densities and character, and to planar defects, especially stacking faults or twinning. The different effects of microstructure features can be evaluated separately on the basis of the different corresponding profile functions and the different hkl dependences of line broadening. Profiles of faulted crystals consist of sub-profiles broadened and shifted according to different hkl conditions. The systematic analysis of the breadts and shifts of sub-profiles enables X-ray line profile analysis by using defect related profile functions corresponding to: (i) size, (ii) strain and (iii) planar faults, respectively. It is shown that twinning can either be enhanced or weakened by severe plastic deformation.