Use of Ornamental Rock Waste in Porcelain Tile
The ornamental rock industry generates huge amounts of waste in form of fine powder, demanding adequate alternatives for its final disposal. The possibility of using ornamental rock waste as a flux in porcelain tile has been assessed. The porcelain tile formulations are constituted mainly by kaolin, feldspar and quartz. The waste was added to a typical porcelain tile body, replacing the sodic feldspar by up to 15 wt. %. The prepared pastes were fired of 1240°C using a fast-firing cycle. The specifications of porcelain floor tile in terms of physical properties were achieved.
Lucio Salgado and Francisco Ambrozio Filho
A.J. Souza et al., "Use of Ornamental Rock Waste in Porcelain Tile", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 591-593, pp. 454-458, 2008