Creep Deformation / Oxidation Behavior of Re-Cr-Ni Diffusion Barrier Coated Hastelloy-X at 970°C in Air
High temperature oxidation / creep deformation behavior of a diffusion barrier coated Hastelloy-X alloy, with large grain size ~500μm, was investigated at 970°C in air with external tensile stress of 22.5, 27.5, 32, and 40MPa. The diffusion barrier coating formed on Hastelloy-X consisted of a duplex structure with an inner diffusion barrier layer of Re-Cr-Ni alloy, and an outer oxidation resistant layer of β-NiAl. Un coated bare Hastelloy-X alloy with same grain size was also examined under the same conditions for comparison. The composition of the as-coated diffusion barrier coating was (15~21)Ni, (33~37)Cr, (30~33)Re, (11~15)Mo, and (9~14)Fe. This composition corresponds to σ-phase in the Ni-Cr-Re ternary system, which is known as a topologically close packed, TCP phase. The composition of this diffusion barrier layer did not change during the experiment. The oxide scales formed after creep testing on the coated and un-coated alloy surfaces were needle-like θ-Al2O3, and Cr2O3 with small amount of FeCr2O4, respectively. Grain boundary oxidation was also found in the subsurface region of the un-coated alloy. The Al2O3 scale exhibited severe spallation, and many cracks were formed perpendicular to the stress direction. However, no spallation or cracks were observed in the Cr2O3. The creep rupture times for the diffusion barrier coated alloy were about 1.5 times longer than those for bare alloy at all creep stress conditions. The fracture surface after rupture indicates that fracture occurred along alloy grain boundaries in both the coated and un-coated alloy substrate. Many cavities and cracks were observed within the diffusion barrier coated alloy substrate. These cavities and cracks tended to propagate from the substrate toward the diffusion barrier layer, and then stopped at the Re-Cr-Ni / β-NiAl interface. Cracks formed in the un-coated alloy initiated at the tip of grain boundary oxides, and propagated into alloy substrate. However no major cavities were observed inside the alloy substrate. The stress index, n, for both specimens was about 6, and this indicates that the deformation mechanism of both samples was dislocation creep. These results suggest that the Re-Cr-Ni diffusion barrier layer acts as a barrier against the movement of dislocations at the interface with the alloy surface.
Pierre Steinmetz, Ian G. Wright, Alain Galerie, Daniel Monceau and Stéphane Mathieu
S. Hayashi et al., "Creep Deformation / Oxidation Behavior of Re-Cr-Ni Diffusion Barrier Coated Hastelloy-X at 970°C in Air", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 595-598, pp. 107-116, 2008