Tool Wear and Reactions in 304 Stainless Steel during Friction Stir Welding
Four kinds of the welding tools made of PCBN, W, WC and Al2O3 were applied to FSW of 304 stainless steel, and then the wear and reaction between the tool debris and the steel matrix were examined for each tool material. Severe tool damage was found in W, WC and Al2O3 tools after FSW, while the PCBN tool was hardly worn. Formations of Cr-rich borides, ferrite phases containing the high W contents and Cr-rich carbides were found in the stir zones produced using PCBN, W and WC tools, respectively. It was suggested that formation of those phases could be expected by calculation using the thermochemical database.
Yi Tan and Dongying Ju
Y. S. Sato et al., "Tool Wear and Reactions in 304 Stainless Steel during Friction Stir Welding", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 675-677, pp. 731-734, 2011