A kind of water-based material which can absorb mine gas and suppress gas explosion was designed for the purpose of keeping the coal mine safe. The anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the main gas absorbent according to the micelle solubilization of surfactant, and castor oil was used as absorption enhancer in this material. Methane was regarded as a model of mine gas. The volume fraction of methane absorption was measured by head space gas chromatography. The state of the aggregates in the material was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The explosion suppression effect was tested by self-made explosion chamber which can simulate gas explosion. Also the methane absorption rate of the water-based material was tested in practice of coal mine. The results showed that the maximum volume fraction of methane absorption of the SDS + castor oil aqueous solution can reach up to 12.65%; with the addition of castor oil, the structure of aggregates in SDS aqueous solution system changed from spherical to lamellar, so it can provide greater non-polar microenvironment for methane; the water-based material can lower the maximum explosion pressure to some extent when it was sprayed into the explosion chamber in atomization condition before ignition; field test on methane absorption showed that the methane absorption ratio can reach up to 16.7%, which is much higher than the experimental value.