Semi-Solid Extrusion of Complex-Shaped Steel Rods Using Ceramic Dies
Isothermal semi-solid extrusion experiments using steel grade X210CrW12 as work material were performed on an industrial forging machine. An improved and up-scaled tool design was applied, based on the concept of self-heating ceramic dies tested in previous laboratory-scale studies and allowing for die preheating temperatures of up to 1400°C. Steel rods of complex cross sectional geometry were formed at low extrusion forces. Shape accuracy of as-formed rods is accurate and metallurgical examination yields no evidence of liquid phase separation. With a view on the intended industrial implementation construction of ceramic tools has to be improved in order to avoid rupture of ceramic parts due to thermo-mechanically induced stresses and to benefit from the advantages inherent to ceramics in metal forming.
G. Hirt, A. Rassili, A. Bührig-Polaczek
S. Muenstermann et al., "Semi-Solid Extrusion of Complex-Shaped Steel Rods Using Ceramic Dies", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 141-143, pp. 243-248, 2008