Characterization of chitosan / layered silicate nanocomposites obtained by solution-mixing technique, having different compositions including treated and untreated montmorilonite (MMT) has been performed. The optimum amount of MMT and also the effect of nanoparticles type on nanocomposite properties by DSC, X-ray diffraction and TG measurements have been established. The chitosan chains were inserted into silicate layers to form the intercalated nanocomposites. The interlayer distance of the silicates in the nanocomposites enlarged as their amount increased. The stiffness and thermal stability enhanced.