The application of high-speed railway data, which is an important component of China's transportation science data sharing, has embodied the typical characteristics of data-intensive computing. A reasonable and effective data placement strategy is needed to deploy and execute data-intensive applications in the cloud computing environment. Study results of current data placement approaches have been analyzed and compared in this paper. Combining the semi-definite programming algorithm with the dynamic interval mapping algorithm, a hierarchical structure data placement strategy is proposed. The semi-definite programming algorithm is suitable for the placement of files with various replications, ensuring that different replications of a file are placed on different storage devices. And the dynamic interval mapping algorithm could guarantee better self-adaptability of the data storage system. It has been proved both by theoretical analysis and experiment demonstration that a hierarchical data placement strategy could guarantee the self-adaptability, data reliability and high-speed data access for large-scale networks.