The heat pump technology which is as an effective energy-saving technology has attracted more and more attentions. A novel solar-air dual-source heat pump system which could synchronously use two heat sources has been provided. In this paper, the mathematical model of the new heat pump system has been built and the calculation accuracy of the mathematical model has been proved. Based on a novel solar-air dual-source heat pump system, the mathematical models of the thermophysical parameters of working fluids, compressor, capillary, condenser, evaporator, and heat pump system have been established. The distribution parameter method has been adopted in the mathematical models of condenser and evaporator. Three operation modes of the novel solar-air dual-source heat pump system have been simulated. The simulated results and the experimental results have been compared. The experiments of the novel solar-air dual-source heat pump system have been accomplished in the constant temperature and humidity laboratory. The compared results show that the error is less than 10%.