Mental problems have profound influence on the development and transfer of illness of the maintained hemodialysis (MHD) patients in the past study. The goal of this pilot study was to explore the effects of psychological intervention which combined brainwave synchronizer with progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on the mental health, physiological function and quality-of-life (QOL) of MHD patients. Seventy-seven MHD patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (ITG, 39 patients) or the control group (CTG, 38 patients). The CTG received the conventional therapy which included hemodialysis (HD) 3 times/week and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) at dosages of 100 units/(kg·week-1) to 150 unites/(kg·week-1) by i.v or subcutaneous injection. The ITG received the conventional therapy combined with psychological intervention, which included brainwave synchronizer and PMR. Psychological and QOL outcomes in both groups were assessed with The Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) and the Short Form 36 Health survey Questionnaire (SF-36) three days before and after the intervention, respectively. And blood routing and kidney functions indexes were tested with hematic parameter at the same time. Two-tailed independent sample t test and χ2 test were performed. Thirty-six patients of the ITG and 34 patients of the CTG completed the study. The patients in the ITG showed better mental state, higher global QOL and higher values of heamoglobin (HB), accounting of red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit (HCT) and serum calcium, lower values of serum phosphor, serum kalium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) before HD and the ratio of interdialytic weight gain to dry weight (IWGR) than those in the CTG. There is no significant difference in serum creatinine (Scr) before HD between both groups. Psychological intervention seems effective in improving MHD patients’ mental state, increasing their compliance to treatment, and mending their physiological function and QOL.