Keyhole Modeling during Laser Deep Penetration Welding
In order to accurately simulate the process of laser deep penetration welding, a mathematical model to describe laser deep penetration welding was developed by using the heat source derived from the ray-tracing model, and taking account into the effect of keyhole on welding pool. With all the governing equations including continuity, momentum and energy equation, the VOF method is adopted to trace the free surface of the molten pool. Numerical simulation was conducted by FLUENT 6.3 software package. The simulation results show that the formation of keyhole in the weld is caused by recoil pressure.
R. P. Wang et al., "Keyhole Modeling during Laser Deep Penetration Welding", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 29-32, pp. 252-257, 2010