In order to explore the cutting rule of hard-to-machine material austenitic stainless steel and to optimize cutting parameters, multiple sets of parameters of austenitic stainless steel cutting were schemed out by using uniform design method. Test cutting researches of cutting forces, surface roughness and cutting efficiency with these parameters were conducted under the condition of dry cutting. On this basis, multi-objective optimization model of cutting force and surface roughness applied to austenitic stainless steel had been set up by multiple regression analysis. Variance analysis showed that these formulas have highly significant linear relationship. Verification test is done under the optimal cutting parameters, and the results of cutting forces and surface roughness are in good agreement with the calculated. Turning efficiency is improved by 23.4%, compared with the actual cutting parameters of past production.