When the AR model is used to identify the structural damage, one problem is often met, that is the method can only make a decision whether the structure is damaged, however, the damage location can not be identified exactly. A structural damage localization method based on AR model in combination with BP neural network is proposed in this paper. The AR time series models are used to describe the acceleration responses. The changes of the first 3-order AR model parameters are extracted and composed as damage characteristic vectors which are put into BP neural network to identify the damage location. The effectiveness of the method is validated by the results of numerical simulation and experiment for a four-layer offshore platform. Only the acceleration responses can be used adequately to localize the structural damage, without the usage of modal parameter and excitation force. Thus the dependence on the modal parameter and excitation can be avoided in this method.