Direct pull-out tests were performed to evaluate the bond performance of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) reinforcing bars in cement mortar. Specimens with different bar diameters and different grouted lengths (i.e., 5d, 10d and 15d, d is the diameter of bars) are prepared for the pull-out tests. For comparison, specimens with plain aluminium alloy bars (AAB) were tested as well. The result shows that the average bond stress between plain aluminium alloy bars and cement is much smaller than that between the deformed GFRP bars and cement; thin GFRP bars tended to have larger average bond stress; the shorter the grouted length, the smaller the maximum average bond stress. Only part of grouted length undertakes the bond stress and the length depends on the shear modulus of GFRP and the surrounding material.