In this paper, XRD was engaged in studying phase transformation of quartz fibers, SEM was engaged in studying the surface micromorphology of quartz fibers heat treated at different temperatures, and the tensile strength was measured by a single fiber strength electronics instrument. The results indicate that surface infiltration agent have been iliminated after heat treatment at 500°C, and the tensile strength decreaced significantly. The higher the temperature was, the more the tensile strength decreaced. There were no significant phase transformation and no crystallization heat treatmented at 500~800°C. But there were some round and strip bulges, and scap defects on the surface. With temperature increasing,some scab defects and bulges began to flake off, and some new rifts and cracks were formed. This was one of the important factors that decreaced tensile strength markedly.