Radioactive ore mining for the production of radium and uranium in Portugal did span over most of the 20th century and ceased in 2001. It was performed mostly before the development of environmental legislation and radiation protection standards. Environmental remediation of the mining and milling sites is currently underway. Rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated sites require also radioactivity monitoring whose costs are covered by the State. The likely re start of uranium mining, in Portugal as well as elsewhere in Europe, reminds that uranium mining shall be managed under the mine “life cycle approach” in order to include decommissioning and environmental rehabilitation costs in the ore pricing.