Ligand-Free and Regioselectivity of the Heck Reaction Catalyzed by Pd(0) Nanoparticles at Ambient Conditions under Ultrasonic Irradiation
The Heck reaction proceeded in isopropanol under ultrasonic irradiation at ambient temperature (30°C) has been reported in this report. The Heck reaction showed excellent regio- selectivity, enhanced reaction rates, high yields, and the conditions were mild and environmentally friendly. It was found that as a heterogeneous catalyst for the reaction palladium forms nano- particles in-situ, and can be recycled for many times. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis characteried the formation of stable, crystalline Pd(0) nanoparticles as catalyst for the reaction.
Zhenyu Du and X.B Sun
Y. H. Zhang et al., "Ligand-Free and Regioselectivity of the Heck Reaction Catalyzed by Pd(0) Nanoparticles at Ambient Conditions under Ultrasonic Irradiation", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 113-116, pp. 1675-1678, 2010