The wear experimental project on load and sliding speed was instituted by the uniform design method, the wear properties of 38CrMoAlA alloy steel under dry friction were investigated on a vertical universal friction and wear tester, the worn surfaces of specimens were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The wear life predication model of 38CrMoAlA alloy steel was established by multiple regression analysis, and the significance of influencing factors was carried out. The results showed that the distribution of experimental points chosen by uniform design method was in research range, and the experimental efficiency was evidently increased, and the experimental cycle was shortened. The wear mechanism of 38CrMoAlA alloy steel was primarily abrasive wear and adhesive wear. It is found that the wear life predication model was highly significant.