In this paper, the effects of the surface asperity wavelength, reduction and lubrication (friction) on the surface roughness transformation of the oxide scale have been studied. The simulation results show that the oxide scale surface roughness decreases with an increase of the average asperity wavelength and reduction. The initial surface roughness affects the decrease rate of surface roughness when the reduction increases. The surface roughness of the oxide scale and steel is quite close when the rolling with lubrication and both of them are reduced with reduction, and the surface roughness of the oxide scale is reduced less comparing with that of without lubrication case. The calculated roughness is close to the measured data.