Aiming at a large marine diesel engine, a mathematical model for the 3-D elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis of piston ring-cylinder liner was presented. The average Reynolds equation and asperity contact approach were combined with the elastic deformation equation. The asymmetry in the circumferential direction, gas blowby and the effect of temperature and pressure on the oil density and viscosity were considered. The 3-D wear simulation of piston ring-cylinder liner was performed when the diesel engine was operated under warm start and cold start conditions, respectively. The 3-D distribution rules show that the first gas ring has the biggest wear loss, and the maximum wear loss of cylinder liner occurs in the vicinity of TDCF. Finally, the results matched well with the wear measurements, and it indicates the present method is effective and can help engineers to improve the tribological performance of the diesel engine.