The effect of laser shock processing (LSP) on bending fatigue performance of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy was studied. LSP was performed on fatigue testing specimens with optimized parameters. Stress-life fatigue data were generated for both shocked and as-machined conditions. The fatigue improvements of LSP were discussed accounting for the effect of residual stress. The results show that shocked specimens exhibited significantly improved fatigue performance, with as-machined specimens having a factor of 1.6-4.4 improvement in fatigue life (depending on fatigue stress level). The stability of the residual stress induced by LSP under cyclic load was particularly investigated by means of X-ray diffraction measurements. Residual stress relaxation was observed. And the higher the cyclic load, the higher the relaxation rate. Due to the cyclic creep effect, the residual stress decreases linearly with the logarithm of the number of cycles.