Cu-Al2O3 composites were prepared by a new simplified internal oxidation process integrating with powder metallurgical process, and then the hot extrusion and the cold rolling processes were carried out. The microstructure, electrical conductivity, hardness, tensile strength and thermal stability of the composites were investigated. The results show that Cu-Al2O3 composites were fabricated successfully by the simplified process in which internal oxidation completed during the sintering. There are a mass of fine Al2O3 particles in size varying from 5 nm to 20nm dispersed in copper matrix after sintering 950 for 4h. After sintered at 950 for 4h and extruded at 950 followed with the cold deforming of 80%, the electrical conductivity, hardness, tensile strength and softening temperature of composite reach 81％IACS, 137HV, 561MPa and 850 respectively. It is considered that the dispersion strengthening and strain hardening have greatly contribution to the Cu-Al2O3 composites fabricated with the simplified process.