Cutting Force and Tool Deflection Predictions for High Speed Machining of Hard to Cut Material
The dimension accuracy and the too life are the major issues of the machining of hard-to-cut materials. To fulfill the requirements of accuracy and tool life needs not only well planning of cutting path but also the proper cutting conditions of cutters. The vibration and deflection of cutters caused by poor selection of cutting conditions can be predicted using models of cutting force and tool deflection. In this paper, a cutting force model considering the effect of tool helical angle and a cantilever beam model of tool deflection were proposed for the high speed machining of hard-to-cut material SKD11. The shearing force, the plowing forces, and the helical angle of cutters are considered in the elemental force model. The material of workpiece, SKD11, studied in this paper is commonly used for the die and mold industries. The cutting constants of the proposed force model are determined via the cutting experiments carried out on a high speed machining center. A dynamometer and a high frequency data acquisition system were used to measure the x-, y-, and z-direction cutting forces. The obtained cutting constants were used to predict the cutting forces and compared with the results obtained from the cutting experiment of verification using cutters with different helical angles. The theoretical and the experimental cutting forces in the x-, y-, and z- direction are in good agreement using flat cutters with 30 and 45 degrees of helical angle. The dimension deviations of the cut surface in the cutting experiment case of tool deflection were measured using a touch probe and an infrared receiver installed on the machining center. The measured average dimension deviation, 0.163mm, is close to the predicted tool deflection, 0.153mm, using the proposed cantilever beam model. The comparisons of the cutting forces and the average of the cut surface dimension deviation are in good agreement and verify the proposed cutting force and the tool deflection models are feasible and useful.
Zhengyi Jiang, Xianghua Liu and Jinglong Bu
J. J. Sheu et al., "Cutting Force and Tool Deflection Predictions for High Speed Machining of Hard to Cut Material", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 154-155, pp. 1157-1164, 2011