Surface modification of 40Cr steel by high current pulsed electron beam has been investigated . The pulsed times of HCPEB was changed from 1 to 25 to prepare different specimens. Surface microstructures and section microstructures after HCPEB irradiation were detected by using metallurgical microscope, SEM and X-ray diffractometer. It is shown that crater defects were found on the surface after the irradiation of HCPEB and the density of craters will decrease with increasing pulses times. When treated by 27Kev accelerating voltage, with increasing pulse times, the particles located in surface layer were obviously refined .The surface roughness, hardness, wear properties and corrosion resistance were analyzed after irradiation of HCPEB. The wear resistance and corrosion resistance were obviously enhanced after 10 pulses treatment.