Crater Characteristics of Tungsten Spheres Impacting Steel Target
The armed steel target impacted vertically by tungsten spheres with different initial velocities and masses was studied by experiments. The macroscopic properties of crater were analyzed by the shape features of crater, the size dimension of crater, cracks along the penetration tunnel and the characteristics of recovered tungsten spheres. The results show that the everted rimmed and irregular shape of crater is heavier with velocity and mass of tungsten sphere. The shape of the top surface of impactor changes from the original sphere to the flat profile and the mass shows an obvious drop at a higher impact velocity The ratio of the crater diameter to the diameter of tungsten sphere, and the ratio of the crater depth to the crater diameter both descend with the mass at the same initial velocity of tungsten sphere. The specific expression of nondimensional penetration depth versus dynamic pressure is given by experiment data.
Guojun Zhang and Jessica Xu
Y. X. Dong et al., "Crater Characteristics of Tungsten Spheres Impacting Steel Target", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 160-162, pp. 1022-1027, 2011